Species by Layer
Expanded from Geoff Lawton's list of pioneer plant species used on Bayudha Jordan site, this page present plant species, classified by layer, and summarize their uses in a permaculture system. Feel free to add more species in the corresponding layer. See characteristics page for more details on certain plants.

I - Canopy

    • Food trees

  • Mulberry, Morus, < * * > : edible, forage, silkworms food, medicinal
  • Inga, (fr: Pois doux), < * * * > : Edible seeds, Medicinal, Nitrogen fixer. Cultivated combined with coffee plants.
  • Avocado, Persea americana, (fr: Avocatier), < * > :
  • Date Palm, Phoenix dactylifera, < * * * * * > : Edible fruit. Additive to coffee. Aromatic oil for soap and cosmetics. Medicinal. Forage. Light but not durable wood, unless soaked in salt and regularly oiled. Thermal insulating properties. Used in construction (bridge, aqueduc, dhows). Coating syrop against leaking. Palm leaves for fiber (hats, baskets, rope, coarse cloth). Spines used. Biocharfrom seeds. Draught and frost resistant. Grows fast if irrigated. Fruit need sun to mature. Shallow root.
    • Nut / acorn trees

  • Turkish Hazel, Corylus Colurna, (fr: Noisetier de Byzance), < * * > : edible, medicinal, mycorrhizal relationship , graftable (no sucker), 25m
  • Walnuts, Juglans, (Noyer), < * > : helped by mustards
  • Chestnuts, Castanea, (fr: Chataignier), < * * * * >: edible, forage, wildlife, timber
  • Stone Pine, Pinus pinea (fr: Pin parasol), < * * * * * > : Edible nut. Flexible and light wood (wood working, boat construction). Associated with Aleppo Pine and Holm Oak. Deep tap root. Used to drain swamps and fix sandy dunes. (Mycorrhizal ?)
  • Aleppo Pine, Pinus hapensis (fr: Pin d'alep), < * * * * * >: Edible nut. Aromatic resin. Hard but flexible wood (construction). Bark used to enhance resistance of fishing net. Deep tap root. (Mycorrhizal ?)
  • Oak, Quercus, < * * * >: Edible nut, nuts and leaves are fodder, but toxic in large amount (tannic acid). Hardwood, Mycorhizal relationship with black and white truffle. Deep taproot.
  • Holm Oak, Quercus ilex, (fr: Chene vert), < * * * >: coastal windbreaks, any well drained soil. Not tolerant of cold. Firewood or charcoal. Medicinal. Toxic tannic acid content. Mycorrhizal (e.g. black truffle)
    • Nitrogen fixers trees

  • Albizia lebbek, < * * > : "a slower growing, long-term, large canopy, long-lived shade tree; a good nitrogen fixer and very drought tolerant.", [1]. Pods and seeds may be toxic and psychoactive, due to saponin, and limit their uptake. Leaves are free from toxicity (tropicalforage).
  • Bauhinia, < * * >: "a very beautiful flowering plant with an unusual leaf, a slower growing, large canopy, long-lived shade tree; a good nitrogen fixer and moderately drought tolerant. Will coppice or pollard.", [1]
  • Caroube, Ceratonia siliqua, (Fabaceae family), < * * * * * >: Edible pods, Pods and seeds forage. Medicinal. Nitrogen fixation Deep root.
  • Casuarina Torulosa, or Allocasuarina torulosa, < * * * * * >: "a fast-growing, long-lived, tall, slender form nitrogen fixer and phosphate fixer through fungi relationship; a very good wind break tree and excellent firewood.", [1]
  • Prosopis, and notably Prosopis glandulosa, < * * * > : "a medium to large tree, long-lived, a good nitrogen fixer, a good forage including the pods which can be human food; coppices and pollards well but is very spiny and is usually pruned to a high standard to reduce human contact with the spines, unless being used as an animal barrier hedge or for firewood production as it is quite good stick fuel for rocket stoves. Extremely drought tolerant.", [1]. Mesquitegroup is also known as a bee forage, especially Prosopis glandulosa, and as very hard wood. Phreatophyte with very deep roots, it may become difficult to remove. Some claim that it has a high transpiration and that it affects groundwater table. In certain countries (e.g. Kenya) Mesquite mismanagement and proliferation became a large scale problem.
  • Black Wattle, Acacia mearnsii, < * * >: Nitrogen fixer. Draught resistant.
  • Acacia, < * * > : more specifially dealbata, decurrens, saligna, sophorae, balleyana
  • Black Locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, < * * > :
  • Poinciana, < * >: "a large and beautiful flowering and exotic leaf form, very wide canopy long-lived nitrogen fixer that will coppice and pollard. Quite drought tolerant.", (G.Lawton).
  • Sophora, < * * > : Medicinal root. Possible nitrogen fixer. Prefers mid-shadow. Short draught resistant. Snow resistant. (more about macrocarpa)
  • Tipuana tipu, < * * >: "a slower growing, long-term, large canopy, long-lived shade tree, with excellent filtered shade form for food forest canopy inter-planting; a good nitrogen fixer and moderately drought tolerant. Will coppice or pollard.", [1]
    • Other
  • Tamarix, < * * * >: Draught and salt tolerant, sandy soil. Wind break. Invasive.
  • Cypress, Cupressus sempervirens, < * * * * > : medical use for vasoconstric properties. Indecomposable wood (boat, barrel, funerary). Wind breaker. Salt and draight resistant. Deep taproot. High longevity tree.
  • Buddhist Pine, Podocarpus, < * * * > : edible, drought resistant, construction wood
  • Carya ovata, < * > :
  • Jujubier, < * > : small tree
  • Cacao, < * > :
  • Kumquat, < * > :
  • Cafe arabica, < * > :
  • Arbousier, < * > :
  • Amelanchier, < * > :
  • Hippophae, (fr: Argousier), < * > :
  • Eleagnus multiflora, < * > :
  • Ceanothus, < * > :
  • Abies, < * > :
  • Cytisus, < * > :
  • Neem, < * > :
  • Toom, < * > :
  • Mauwa, < * > :
  • Papaya, < * > :


II - Small Trees

    • Fruit trees

  • Plum, Prunus prunus, (fr : Prunier), < * > : helped by strawberry and white clover, perennial ryegrass and creeping red fescue, star thistle
  • Almond, Prunus dulcis (syn. Prunis amygdalus), < * >: helped by crimson clover, subclover
  • Cherry, in Prunus
  • Pears, Pyrus, < * > : helped by perrenial clover
  • Pomgranate
  • Fig
  • Orange tree
  • Kumquat
  • Lemon
  • Apricot
  • Banan
  • Apple
  • Quince, Cydonia oblonga, (fr: Cognassier) , < * >:
    • Other food trees

  • Leucaena, < * * * * > : "a fast growing, medium size and life span tree; a very heavy nitrogen fixer and very high quality animal forage that coppices and pollards very well.", (G.Lawton). Some species leaves and pods are toxic to human and livestock, due to mimosine, while others (e.g. Leucaena leucocephala) are edible.
  • Acacia Farnesiana, (fr: Cassier), < * * * * * > : "a small, medium-term nitrogen fixing tree with food, medicinal, dye and perfume uses; also a thorny barrier plant. Very drought resistant.", [1]. Bee forage.
  • Santalum acuminatum, < * * >: Edible medicinal fruit. Furniture timber, inflammable oil (e.g. candle). Hemiparasitic, uses other plants roots (e.g. Acacia, Maireana, Atriplex). Cultivated with Melia azedarach.

    • Nitrogen fixers

  • Sesbania sesban, < * * * > : "an extremely fast growing small tree with a short life span; a very heavy nitrogen fixer, grows very easily from seed.", [1] Toxic to young chicken and in high doses (e.g. 40%).
  • Acacia Saligna, < * * * > : "a small medium-term nitrogen fixer, fast growing, good fire wood, very drought tolerant.", [1]. Invasive potential. Extensive roots.
  • Honey Locust, Gleditsia triacanthos, < * * * * > : "a long-term, medium-size nitrogen fixer that is very thorny; will coppice and pollard and is very good firewood and a very good bee forage.", [1]
  • Cassia, < * * > : "a small, local bush cassia that is a medium-term nitrogen fixer that can be cut for mulch.", [1]. Medicinal uses.
  • Tagasaste, (Fabaceae family), < * * * > : Forage, Nitrogen fixer. Draught resistant. Sandy soil.
  • Hazel Alder, Alnus serrulata, (fr: Aulne), < * * * * * > : Forage nuts. Medicinal tea from trunk wood (pain of birth). Wood adapted to mushroom cultivation. Medium nitrogen fixer. Like water. Stabilizer and restorer of riversides. Shade intolerant. Fire tolerance. Draught intolerant. Fast growth rate.
  • Silver berry, Elaeagnus, < * * * > : Many edible species (e.g. x ebbingei, x macrophulla, x pungens). Nitrogen fixer.
  • Gliricidia, (Fabaceae family), < * * * > : fast grower, fuel wood, nitrogen fixer, forage nutritional but toxic, cultivated with cacao, coffee, vanilla, tea, pepper, passionfruit. Rodonticide. Living fence.

Other

  • Willow, Salix, (fr: Saule), < * * > : Graywater treatment.
  • Quercus coccifera, (fr: Chêne des garrigues), < * * > : Fodder, Dye from nut parasite insect, draught tolerant.


III - Shrubs

    • Ribes

  • Raspberry
  • Blackcurrant, Ribes nigrum, < * > : edible and medicinal berries.
  • Redcurrant
  • Goosberry
    • Edible Berries

  • Myrtus communis, (gr: Μυρτιά, fr: Myrte), < * * > : edible, medicinal, mediterranean plant
  • Blueberry
  • Hippophae rhamnoides (fr: Argousier), < * * * * *> : Edible berries, fodder, medicinal use, tolerates salty soils and has a wide-reaching root system. Erosion control. Nitrogen fixer (Frankia Actynomycetes). Easy to reproduce.
  • Myrsine africana, < * * * >: edible fruits, dry tolerant, medicinal.
    • Edible Shrub

  • Banan tree, Musa, < * > : edible fruit
  • Opuntia ficus-indica, < * * * * > : Fruit and young leaves edible and forage. Living fence. Soil erosion control and decompaction.
  • Ananas
  • Prunus spinoza, (fr: Prunellier)
  • Amelanchier, < * * > : edible, wild life
  • Siberian pea, Caragana arborescens, < * * * * >: edible, bees attractor, windbreak, erosion control, wildlife, bonsai
  • Common Hazel, Corylus Colurna, (fr: Noisetier commun), < * * * > : edible, medicinal, wood used for Wattle-and-daub and fencing, mycorrhizal (e.g. Biancetto Truffle, Cantharellus pallens, Hazel Boletus), grown as coppice. Other Corylus shrubs and small trees produce smaller edible nuts.
  • Atriplex, < * * * * * >: edible, salt and drought resistant, grazed by animals lamb meat with more vitamine E equal to grain feed, pasta color


    • Aromatic

  • Lemon Grass, Cymbopogon citratus, < * * > : Aromatic and medicinal plant. Insect (e.g. mosquito) repellent.
  • Rose
  • Cardamon
    • Nitrogen fixers shrubs

  • Broom , Spartum junceum, < * * * * > : dry and salt tolerant, nitrogen fixer, yellow dye, essential oil, fiber, erosion control
  • Ceanothus, < * * >: nitrogen fixer, bees forage, ornemental
  • Cycas revolta, < * * >: (slow growing palm), nitrogen fixer, ornemental, drought resistant
  • Eleagnus, < * * * >: edible, nitrogen fixer, medicinal
  • Genisteae or Cytisus
  • Jerusalem Torn, Parkinsonia, < * * * > : "a medium to large long-lived shrub or small tree, a good nitrogen fixer, small thorns, very hardy with light shade canopy.", [1].. Draught resistant.
  • Myrica, < * * * > : nitrogen fixer, edible, insect repelent
  • Tecoma Stans, < * * * * > : "a medium-size and -term fast growing, very hardy tree that can be heavily coppiced or pollarded for mulch. Not a legume.", [1]. Attract insects and bees, but poisonous honey. Fodder for livestock. Salt and drought tolerant. ??????
  • Retama, < * * * * > : dry and salt tolerant, fabacea familly, medicinal, erosion control, fiber

Other

  • Agave, < * * * > : Fiber for coarse cloth, Sap, Nectar (expressed from core) fermented as Pulque. Extreme draught resistant.
  • Sisal
  • Leadplant
  • Hawthorne, Crataegus
  • Butterfly bush, Buddleja, < * > : bees attractor
  • Berberris
  • Babool
  • Baer
  • Khayer
  • Pennisetum purpureum,< * * * * * >: forage, biofuel, attract and trap corn borer pest, erosion control, polluted land phytoremedation.


IV - Herbaceous

    • Cereal and Gramineae (Poaceae)

  • Wheat
  • Buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum (gr: φαγόπυρο, fr: Sarrasin), < * * >. edible, for cool climates, first year for prevention of weed emergence.
  • Rye, Secale cereale, (fr: Seigle), < * > : edible, helped by crimson clover
  • Barley, (fr: Orge), < * * > : edible. Salt resistant.
  • Oat, (fr: Avoine), < * > :
  • Corn
  • Amarath, Amaranthus, < * * > : Fodder. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus have edible seeds and leaves.
  • Alpha, Stipe tenace,, < * * * * > : edible, dry and salt resistant, fibre use for cordes, paniers, paper, forage for horses and camels, erosion control
  • Millet
  • Rice
  • Einkorn wheat, Triticum monococcum, < * >: edible, suited for gluten intolerence. Salt resistance
  • Vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides, < * * * * * >:natural building and house uses (evaporative cooler), erosion control, pest control, bioenergy, forage, medicinal, aromatic, mushroom substrate, 1
  • Pea, (fr: Pois) :
  • Cow Pea, Vigna unguiculata, < * * > : grows well in poor soils with more than 85% sand and with less than 0.2% organic matter and low levels of phosphorus. Nitrogen fixer.
  • Peanut, (fr: Arachide)
  • Common Vetch, Vicia sativa, < * * * * > : Protein rich seed for fodder. Nitrogen fixer. Draught Resistant. Cultivated with cereal (e.g. rye, triticale, oat) as tutor.
  • Fava beans, Vicia faba, < * * * * * > : Protein rich seed for food and fodder. Nitrogen fixer. Draught Resistant. Cultivated with cereal (e.g. rye, triticale, oat) as tutor.
  • Runner beans
  • Blackeyes beans
  • Tepary bean, Phaseolus acutifolius, (fr: Haricot tepari), < * > :
  • Common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, (fr: Haricot), < * >:
  • Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, < * * * > : edible, forage. Fixes nitrogen, drought resistant (see on characteristics page)
  • False indigo
    • Aromatic

  • Anise
  • Helichrysum italicum, < * * >: dry and salt tolerant, medicinal, mediteranean, used in flower arangements.
  • Chamomille
  • Chervil
  • Rosemary
  • Sage, Salvia
  • Caraway, Carum carvi
  • Lovage
  • Oregano
  • Basil
  • Dill
  • White Mustard, Sinapis Alba, < * * * >: Edible seeds and shoots, fodder and honey plant. Green manure, nitrate trap, clay breaker and nematode repellent. More details on Plant Characteristics Page.
  • Coriander
  • Parsley
  • Liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra
  • Lavanda
  • New Jersey Tea, Ceanothus
  • Vervena
    • Brassica family

  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Brussels
  • Brocoli
  • Kale
  • Chinese cabbage
  • Wintersquash
  • Melon
    • Other food crop

  • Lettuce
  • Spinach
  • Cichorium, (gr: Κιχώριο), < * * > : Edible. Soil decompaction.
  • Sunflower
  • Eggplant
  • Fennel
  • Aspargus
  • Tomato
  • Capsicum, (fr: Poivron / Piment), < * > :
  • Lentil
  • Salsify
  • Sorrel : french sorrel
  • Artichoke
  • Rubarb
    • Other

  • Artemisia absinthium, < * > : Wormwood pest and insect control
  • Tansy, Tenacetum vulgare, < * * * > : Insect repellent, bees calmant, medicinal, colorant
  • Marigold, Tagetes : insect repellent
  • Borage
  • Petunia
  • Geranium
  • Aster
  • Penstemon
  • Achillea millefolium
  • Penisetum
  • Ammophila arenaria, (fr: Oyat), < * > : fixes sandy soil
  • Phlox, < * > : border plant, perennial, maybe edible


V - Rizhosphere

    • Alliums

  • Leek, (fr: Poireau), < * > :
  • Chives, (fr: Ciboulette), < * > :
  • Garlic
  • Onion
  • Shallot
    • Other food crop

  • Burdock, Arctium, (gr: πλατομαντήλα), < * * * > : strong and deep rooted edible plant for hard and compact soils
  • Canna indica, < * * > : edible root, seeds for musical instrument.
  • Sea onion, Scilla maritima, < * * > : medicinal, toxic to rats, drought resistant, ornemental
  • Radish, < * > : attract insects
  • Horseradish, < * > :
  • Asian radish, < * > :
  • Carrot, < * > : attract insects
  • Garlic, Allium family, notably Allium sativum, < * > :
  • Beets : magnesium
  • Silver beet
  • Globe beet
  • Longroot beet
  • Jerusalem Artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus, < * > : edible root, perrenial
  • Celery
  • Turnip
  • Potato
  • Sweet Potato
  • Taro
  • Ginger


VI - Ground Cover plants

    • Cucurbitaceae

  • Pumpkin
  • Cucumber
  • Squach
    • Other food crop

  • Lupins, Lupinus luteus, < * * * > : Edible, forage. Nitrogen fixer help cucumbers, squash, broccoli, and spinach.
  • Strawberry, Fragaria , < * * >: edible fruit, dynamic accumulator (fe)
    • Other edible

  • Pig Face, Carpobrotus glaucescens , < * * * >: "a succulent ground cover that insulates the ground from the intense heat, reducing evaporation and trapping organic matter and wind blown nutrient, creating a much improved topsoil environment. Extremely drought tolerant.", [1]. Edible fruits, and leaves. Fire resistant. Potential invasive.
  • Nasturium, (fr: Capucines), < * * * >: edible, attract aphids (Aphidoidea)
    • Other

  • Clover, Trifolium
  • Comfrey, Symphytum × uplandicum, < * * * * > : Forage and medicinal, Dynamic accumulator (high silicon, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron), Very deep rooted, Rich mulch. Compost activator (low C:N). Liver toxicity.
  • Summer Savory
  • Mint
  • Peppermint
  • Ground Pine, Ajuga


VII - Climbers

  • Grape, Vitis, < * * > : fruit and leaves edible and forage. helped by bell beans (Vicia faba), crimson clover, barley, festuca, prefer ectomycorrhiza for more notriments and better wine
  • Kiwi, Actinidia deliciosa, < * > : edible, helped by strawberry and white clover
  • Jasmine, Jasminum, < * > : aromatic flower, ornemental plant.
  • Passion fruit, Passiflora edulis, < * > :
  • Chocolate vine, Akebia, < * > : edible, invasive
  • Bindweed, Convolvulus, (fr:liseron) < * * * >: honey and pollinisator plant (companion for fruit trees), mediteranean, dry tolerant, invasive, attracts hoverfly who helps biologic control of pests, ornemantale.
  • Ingame
  • Rotin
  • Pepper


VIII - Water plants

  • Posidonia, < * * * > : Sea grass, fibers rejected on the beach. Forage, Packaging, Roof isolation, Biogas. Erosion control alive or as fibre on beaches.
  • Lotus corniculatus




Properties

  1. Usage
    1. Food or Aromatic (UF - UA)
    2. Forage or fodder (UFo)
    3. Nectar - Sap (UN - US)
    4. Pharmaceutical and medicinal (UPh)
    5. Phyto-remediation (UPR)
    6. Wood - Timber (UT)
    7. Fiber (UFi)
    8. Dyes (UD)
    9. Fuel (UF)
    10. Ornemental (UO)
  2. Fertilizer
    1. Nitrogen fixation (FN)
    2. Dynamic Accumulation (FDA)
    3. Speed and quality mulch.
  3. Pest control
    1. Attract pest (PA)
    2. Repells pest (PR)
    3. Attract beneficial (PABI)
    4. Attract birds (PAB)
  4. Structure
    1. Wind breaking (SW)
    2. Shadow casting (SS)
    3. Water retention and transpiration (SWR - SWT)
    4. Support for climbers (SC)
  5. Relationship
    1. Mycorhizal (RM)
    2. Cultivation association
    3. Compagnionship
  6. Growth properties
    1. Adult Size (GS)
    2. Perrenial or (bi-)annual (GP)
    3. Decidious or persistent (GD)
    4. Growth speed (GSp)
    5. Reproduction (GR)
    6. Invasiveness or opportunism (GI)
    7. Root system (GR)
    8. Coppicing need and tolerance (GCN - GCR)
  7. Environmental Requirements
    1. Soil drainage (RSD)
    2. Sun and Shade tolerance (RS - RShT)
    3. Ph & Salt resistance (RPh - RSa)
    4. Hardiness, Frost resistance (RH - RF)
    5. Draught, Brittleness (RD - RB)
    6. Supported Climate (RC)

References

  1. Geoff Lawton's list of pioneer plant species used on Bayudha Jordan site :"If you came to a site like this and just started planting typical fruit and vegetables, you would fail miserably. Conditions are far too harsh. Without pioneer species (like these listed below) first setting the stage, the show just would not go on..."
  2. Forage fact sheets : http://www.tropicalforages.info/

See also

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