This page summarize key characteristics, niche analysis and cultivation method for plants, an information essential for permaculture design. Details can be found below on species in this list by name (or in the list by category at the right) :


Information on this page may implicitly be contextual to a particular climate (e.g. temperate in PFAF database) and may need to be adjusted (e.g. full sun in temperate is semi-shade in mediterranean). Information and pictures comes from various sources, mainly from :


You can find information in plant characteristics databases, such as the following:
  1. Plant For A Future
  2. Practical Plants
  3. Gardenality
  4. My Folia

For an overview, see summarized plant uses classified by layer in Plant Species by Layer page. Be welcome to edit this page and add information and plants, as long as you keep track of information source.




Vegetables



Asperges

  • Summary
  • Herbaceous, spring vegetable, a flowering perennial [1]

  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context native to most of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence 1-1,5m
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction non self fertile [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions good companion plant for tomatoes, parsley and basil. When grown together, tomatoes help to protect asparagus from the asparagus beetle. Asparagus is said to repel the nematodes that can infect tomatoes. [2]
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior attracts wildlife, bee plant [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure. [2]
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Wind It can tolerate maritime exposure
    • Drainage well drained
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance Fertile and sandy soils by the seashore and along river banks [2], suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil
    • pH acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid, very alkaline and saline soils, 6,5 or higher, it tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.2. [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation Seed - pre-soak for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in spring or as soon as the seed is ripe in early autumn in a greenhouse. It usually germinates in 3 - 6 weeks at 25°c[134]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a sunny position in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer[K]. Division in early spring as the plant comes into growth.
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asparagus
    2. http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Asparagus+officinalis

Broccoli, Brassica oleracea italica

  • Summaryexternal image bre.jpg
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : Northern Mediterranean [1], south of Italy [2]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Plant Form, Height & Width
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period
    • Pollination & Reproduction
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses :
    • Companions : good companion for celery and other aromatic plants since these seem to reduce insect predations [3]
    • Incompatibilities : unsure if it grows badly or well with potatoes, beet and onions[3].
    • Predatorsexternal image 211.jpg
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerance
    • Sun : succeeds in full sun, but tolerate semi-shade [2]
    • Nutrients : Succeeds in full sun in a well-drained fertile preferably alkaline soil [3]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil. [1]
    • Temperature :grows best between 18 and 23 °C (64 and 73 °F), does poorly in hot summer weather [1]
    • Wind : tolerate maritime exposure [3]
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Succeeds in a well-drained fertile soil , Prefers a heavy soil. Succeeds in any reasonable soil [3].
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils [3]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3. preferably alkaline soil [3]
  • Cultivationexternal image broccolisprouts-470x313.jpg
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : sow sprouting broccoli in a seedbed outdoors in March to May. Plant out in June. Do not let the seedlings get overcrowded or they will soon become leggy and will not make such good plants. [3]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broccoli
    2. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brocoli
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+oleracea+italica




Brussels Sprout, Brassica oleracea gemmiferaexternal image brussels-sprouts-info1.gif

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : biennal [2]
    • Shape : growing to 1.2 m (4ft) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Usesexternal image Bvargemmifera2.jpg
    • Companions : grows well with many aromatic herbs, these herbs help to repel insect pests. Potatoes and celery grow well with Brussels sprouts [2]
    • Incompatibilities : grows badly with strawberries, each plant serving to retard the growth of the other [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, succeeds in full sun [2]
    • Nutrients : succeeds in fertile soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil [2]
    • Temperature : grow in heat ranges of 7–24 °C (45–75 °F), with highest yields at 15–18 °C (59–64 °F) [1]
    • Wind : tolerate maritime exposure [2]
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil, succeeds in full sun in a well-drained soil, prefers a medium to heavy calcareous soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • external image 0047315.jpgpH : suitable for acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, preferably alkaline soil, tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 7.8, though it prefers a pH of 6.5 or higher [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow in early spring. [2]
    • Harvest : ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting [1]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brussels_sprout
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+oleracea+gemmifera




Cabbage, Brassica oleracea capitataexternal image img002.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : biennal [1, 2]
    • Shape : growing to 0.8 m (2ft 7in) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile. [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : good companions for dill, camomile, sage, wormwood, mint and other aromatic plants which help to reduce insect predations on the cabbages, grow well with potatoes and beet [2]external image 250px-Brassica_oleracea2.jpg
    • Incompatibilities : grow badly with strawberries, tomatoes and climbing beans [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : perform best in a location that receives full sun [1], can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, succeeds in full sun [2]
    • Nutrients : prefer fertile ground [1], succeeds in fertile soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, and a moist climate [2]
    • Temperature : between 40 and 75 °F (4 and 24 °C) prompt the best growth, and extended periods of higher or lower temperatures may result in premature bolting (flowering) [1], prefers a cool moist climate [2]
    • Wind : can tolerate maritime exposure [2]external image gray14.JPG
    • Drainage : perform best when grown in well-drained soil, different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay [1], suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil, succeeds in a well-drained soil, prefers a heavy soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : pH of between 6.0 and 6.8 [1], suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils, preferably alkaline soil, tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3 [2]a
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : growers normally place plants 12 to 24 inches (30 to 61 cm) apart, must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, by .5 to 1 mile (0.80 to 1.6 km) to prevent cross pollination [1], can be sown from early spring to late summer [2]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cabbage
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Brassica+oleracea+capitata




Carrot, Daucus carota sativus

  • Summaryexternal image 250px-Daucus_Carota.jpg
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) [3]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period: take around 4 months to mature [1], flower from Jun to August, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. [3]
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, beetles.The plant is self-fertile. [3]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
      • intercropped with tomatoes increases tomato production [1]
      • various companion plants that can help to reduce carrot infestation. In general, these are strong-smelling plants such as garlic, onions and various aromatic plants such as wormwood
      • carrots grow well with lettuce and chives[3]
    • Incompatibilities : dislike dill, grow badly with potatoes, kohl rabi, fennel and cabbages[3].
    • Predatorsexternal image 800px-Daucus_carota_plant.jpg
    • Behavior : If left to flower, it (like any umbellifer) attracts predatory wasps which kill many garden pests [1], Daucus carota can provide a microclimate of cooler, moister air [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : grow best in full sun but tolerate some shade [1], cannot grow in the shade. [3]
    • Nutrients : prefers a good soil moisture [3]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil. and plenty of moisture [3], tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to 410cm, [3]
    • Temperature tolerate : an annual temperature range of 3.6 to 28.5°C , grow best at a mean temperature of 16 - 18°c, [3]
    • Wind : can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. [3].
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils,prefers well-drained soil. [3], a sandy or calcareous loam good roots can only be produced in a soil that permits easy penetration of the root [3]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance : .
    • pH : suitable for acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, tolerate a pH of 4.2 to 8.7. They prefer a pH in the range 6.5 to 7.5 [3]
  • Cultivationexternal image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQiy1x0eKH5wrbNqUqEQGEowOh8BCqpSaQc55cqTImnKjWdwqKVZg
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : seeds, which are 1-3 mm in diameter, should be sown about 2 cm deep. it is suggested that carrot seeds are sown from mid - February to July. [1] , sow in situ in succession from early spring to early summer. A September sowing in mild areas can provide an early spring supply of young roots, though the plants will often require some protection. [3]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrot
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daucus_carota
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Daucus+carota+sativus




Celery, Apium graveolens dulceexternal image Apium%20graveolens%20tavola_celeri.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : biennal [2]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : growing to 0.6 m (2ft) [2]
    • Lifecycle : Germinates in 2 - 3 weeks at 15°c
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : repels the cabbage white butterfly so is a good companion for brassicas, good companion for leeks, tomatoes and French beans (i.e. green beans) [2]
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predator
    • Behavior : is an insect repellent [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
  • external image 200px-Snijselderij_Apium_graveolens.jpg
    • Sun : can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, Prefers a sunny position and some shade in summer [2]
    • Nutrients : Prefers a rich soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil [2]
    • Temperature : grow best in a climate with a mean temperature in the range 16 - 21°c, leaf growth is poor at higher temperatures, low temperatures can induce the plant to run to seed prematurely [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers light well-drained soil. [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils., Prefers a pH between 6.6 and 6.8, Tolerates a pH in the range 4.2 to 8.3 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : germination can be erratic, best surface sow February in a greenhouse. The maincrop can be sown as late as mid-April. Outdoor sown seed rarely germinates satisfactorily[200]. Plant out in May. If you save your own seed you should make sure that only seed from healthy plants is used [2].
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celery
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Apium+graveolens+dulce




Chard, Beta vulgaris cicla

external image 220px-Bette_%C3%A0_c%C3%B4tes_rouges01.jpg
  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : Biennal [2, 3]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : growing to 0.9 m (3ft) [3]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Wind, self-sow freely [3]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Companions : good companion for dwarf beans, onions and kohl rabi [3]
    • Incompatibilities : growth of spinach beet is inhibited by runner beans, charlock and field mustard [3]
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, succeeds in sun or light shade, prefer an open position [3]
    • Nutrients : prefers a rich soil, growing best in a soil abundant with organic matter [3]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, tolerate an annual precipitation of 23 to 315cm [3]
    • Temperature: tolerate an average annual temperature range of 5.0 to 26.6°C [3]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained light soil. [3], grow well in a variety of soils, growing best in a friable well-drained soil, but doing poorly on clay [3]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance : grow best in a deep soil [3]external image chardbrightlightsseedlings31609.jpg
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline and saline soils, prefers a neutral to alkaline soil, optimum pH is 6.0 - 6.8, but neutral and alkaline soils are tolerated, tolerate a pH of 4.2 to 8.2 [3]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : sown between April and August [1]
    • Harvest method & period : harvested while the leaves are young and tender, or after maturity when they are larger and have slightly tougher stems. Typically ready to harvest as early as April and lasts through May [1], harvest start two and half months after sowing [2], sow in situ in early April for the summer crop and again in early July to August for the winter and spring crop [3]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chard
    2. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blette_(plante)
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Beta+vulgaris+cicla




Endive, Cichorium endiviaexternal image Cichorium_endivia_1800_illustration_bio.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : biennal [2]
    • Shape : growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 0.3 m (1ft) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, a combination of low temperatures and short days causes the plants to flower [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behaviorexternal image 374-Endive-Frisee,-Costa-Bl.jpg
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position but with light shade in the summer to prevent plants running to seed [2]
    • Nutrients : succeeds in any moderately fertile soil, prefers a soil that is rich in humus [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil, succeeds in any well-drained soil, prefers a medium to light sandy or gravelly soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • external image frisee-2011-1.jpgpH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils, tolerates a pH in the range 5.3 to 8.3 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow in situ early to mid July for an autumn and winter crop and up to mid August for succession [2]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endive
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cichorium+endivia



Fennel, Foeniculum vulgareexternal image 250px-Illustration_Foeniculum_vulgare1.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence: perrenial [1, 2]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : heights of up to 2.5 m [1], growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 1 m (3ft 3in) [2]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination :
    • Pollination & Reproduction: flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile. self-sow freely [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : poor companion plant [2]
    • Incompatibilities : inhibits the growth of nearby plants, especially beans, tomatoes and kohl rabi, inhibited by wormwood and coriander, best not to grow fennel and dill (Anethum graveolens) close to each other since hybridisation can occur and the resulting seedlings will be of indeterminate flavour [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior : attracting wildlife. attracts beneficial insects such as bees, parasitic wasps, tachinid flies and hoverflies, prevent infestations by aphis [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerancesexternal image 220px-Foeniculum_July_2011-1a.jpg
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity : prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought, prefers a dry position, drought tolerant once established [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind : can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure [2]
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. grows well in sandy soils [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : best sown in early spring in situ. can also be sown in situ in the autumn. self sows freely. very tolerant of disturbance, divisions take well at any time of the year [2]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fennel
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Foeniculum+vulgare




Lettuce, Lactuca sativaexternal image BLactucasativaL1b.gif

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native range spreads from the Mediterranean to Siberia [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual [1], annual/biennal [2]
    • Shape : growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : Heat generally prompts lettuce to bolt [1], flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Flies.The plant is self-fertile. [2]
    • Root : a main taproot and smaller secondary roots [2]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : good companion plant for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions, grow well with cucumbers, cabbages and beetroot [2]
    • Incompatibilitiesexternal image 250px-Kropsla_herfst_.jpg
    • Predators : require quite a lot of attention to protect them from pests such as slugs, aphids and birds, in wet weather they are likely to develop fungal diseases [2]
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : grows best in full sun [1], can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. [2]
    • Nutrients : grows best in nitrogen-rich soils, nutrient deficiencies, including a lack of boron, phosphorus, calcium, molybdenum or copper, can cause a variety of plant problems that range from malformed plants to a lack of head growth [1], succeeds in humus-rich soils [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, plants strongly dislike dry conditions, quickly running to seed in such a situation [2]
    • Temperature : most varieties growing poorly above 75 °F (24 °C); cool temperatures prompt better performance, with 60 to 65 °F (16 to 18 °C) being preferred and as low as 45 °F (7 °C) being tolerated. [1]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : grows best in loose soils [1], suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil, prefers a light sandy loam, succeeds in most well-drained soils [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbanceexternal image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcT3Bo3jvN4TkNoxc6U08SPS5W7IrCjF8_O6dWGf8530pS6EOdER
    • pH : grows best in soils with a pH of between 6.0 and 6.8 [1], suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, dislikes acid conditions [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : usually 8 to 14 inches (20 to 36 cm) apart, lettuce varieties will cross with each other, making spacing of 5 to 20 feet (1.5 to 6.1 m) between varieties necessary to prevent contamination when saving seeds [1], sow a small quantity of seed in situ every 2 or 3 weeks from March (with protection in cooler areas) to June and make another sowing in August/September for a winter/spring crop. Only just cover the seed. [2]
    • Harvest : 65–130 days from planting to harvesting [1]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lettuce
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+sativa



Onion, Allium cepa external image Allium_cepa.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : evergreen bulb, perennial but the cultivated forms often die after flowering in their second year though they can perennate by means of off-sets [2], most frequently a biennial, although it can also be a triennial or a perennial [1].
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : growing to 0.6 m (2ft) [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, insects [2]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Behavior
    • Companions : grow well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile [2]
    • Iexternal image 250px-Allium_cepa_001.JPGncompatibilities : inhibit the growth of legumes, bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other [2]
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Needs
    • Sun : full sun, cannot grow in the shade [2], Tolerant of 6-8 hours of sun [3]
    • Nutrients : prefers rich soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil [2]
    • Soil pH : acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils, prefers at least 6.5, tolerate 4.5 to 8.3 [2].
    • Soil Drainage & Clay : light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth and Root Disturbance
    • Wind
    • Temperature : Optimum growth between 20 and 25°c, hot dry summers ensuring that the bulbs are ripened fully [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, distance & period
    • external image 4369619390_de5c56931d.jpgHarvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onion
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+cepa
    3. http://greenspot-english.blogspot.com/2011/08/permaculture-advises-shadow-tolerant.html




Sweet Pepper, Capsicum Annuumexternal image CapsicumAnnuum.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to southern North America and northern South America [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : perrenial [1, 2], evergreen [2]
    • Shape : up to 60 centimetres (24 in) tall [1], growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) [2]
    • Lifecycle : seed usually germinates in 3 - 4 weeks at 20°c, in flower from Jul to September, and the seeds ripen from Aug to October [2]
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions : good companions for basil and okra [2]external image starr-101030-9376.jpg
    • Incompatibilities : not be grown near apricot trees, because a fungus that the pepper is prone to can cause a lot of harm to the apricot tree [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, requires a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : requires a fertile soil [2]
    • Water : especially productive in dry climates [1], prefers moist soil [2]
    • Temperature : especially productive in warm climates [1], requires a very warm position, can tolerate a small amount of frost [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil, requires a well-drained soil, prefers a light sandy soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils, prefers a soil that is slightly acid, tolerates a pH in the range 4.3 to 8.3 [2]
  • Cultivationexternal image veg11.gif
    • Propagation : sow late winter to early spring, plant them outdoor after the last expected frosts [2]
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsicum_annuum
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Capsicum+annuum




Potato, Solanum tuberosumexternal image Papa.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : perrenial [1, 2], herbaceous [1]
    • Shape : about 60 cm (24 in) high [1]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : self fertile [1], flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Insects [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • external image leo-mic-Solanum-tuberosum-545.jpgDisease : Plants are susceptible to late blight [2]
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade [2]
    • Nutrients : yields best on a fertile soil rich in organic matter [2]
    • Water : prefers moist soil, dislikes wet soils [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, prefers a slightly acid soil, the tubers are subject to scab on limy soils or those deficient in humus [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow early spring. Plant them out after the last expected frosts. Replant tubers in April. [2]external image bbog_new-potato-300x293.jpg
    • Care
    • Harvest : Harvest the tubers in autumn after the top-growth has been cut back by frost. [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Solanum+tuberosum





Romaine Lettuce, Lactuca sativa longifoliaexternal image image149.jpg

  • Summary: a long leaved lettuce originated from Cos island in Greece, more resistant to heat than other lettuces.
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual/biennal [4]
    • Shape : growing to 0.9 m (3ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) [4]
    • Lifecycle : takes 60/70 days till maturity [1], germination is usually rapid and good [4]
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Flies, self.The plant is self-fertile. [4]
    • Root : poor swallow roots [2]
  • Outputs & RelationsProducts and Uses
    • Companionsnext to tall flowers [1], good companion plant for strawberries, carrots, radishes and onions, grow well with cucumbers, cabbages and beetroot [4]
    • Incompatibilitiesexternal image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR3YiZrVdDI6uOW7ZXrUPB9Q8IvpPS34S27E64o5G7tO4FsIX_q
    • Predators : fungi Sclerotinia and Rhizoctonia. foliar diseases downy mildew, powdery mildew, and various fungal leaf spots. disease threats include bottom rot and drop, Botrytis gray mold, and viruses. Other physiological concerns include tip burn, brown rib, bitterness, and puffy head. [?], pests such as slugs, aphids and birds [2]
    • Behavior : The main physiological problem affecting lettuce is bolting (premature flower stalk production) which can occur during persistently hot weather and long days. While romaine is more heat tolerant than head lettuce, bolting can still be a problem. [?]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : full sun like lettuce [?], can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade [4]
    • Nutrients : sidedressing with nitrogen [2], succeeds in humus-rich soils [4]
    • Humidity : permenent moisture give better crop [2], prefers moist soil, strongly dislike dry conditions, quickly running to seed in such a situation. [4]
    • Temperature : Plants prefer temperatures between 16° C (60° F) and 19° C (65° F); however, romaine will grow well as long as the sum of the daytime and nighttime maximum temperatures does not exceed 150 F. [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil, prefers a light sandy loam, succeeds in most well-drained soils [4]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance : external image DSCF1164.jpg
    • pH: 6-6,8 like lettuce [?], suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, dislikes acid conditions [4]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow a small quantity of seed in situ every 2 or 3 weeks from March (with protection in cooler areas) to June and make another sowing in August/September for a winter/spring crop. Only just cover the seed [4], can grow from transplants or direct sowing, transplant early in the morning or late in the afternoon [1], cool season crop, plant early spring or late summer/fall [2], every 20/25cm [3]
    • Care : season can be extended with high tunnels, often from 4-6 weeks greenhouse transplants, culture also in raised beds 2/3 rows [2]
    • Harvest : 'cut and come again' vegetable [1], multiple harvest, harvest as the heads start to close [2]
  • References
    1. http://www.ehow.com/how_2100150_grow-romaine-lettuce.html
    2. http://www.uky.edu/Ag/NewCrops/introsheets/romaine.pdf
    3. http://usagardener.com/how_to_grow_vegetables/how_to_grow_lettuce_leaf.php
    4. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Lactuca+sativa+longifolia





Spinach, Spinacia oleracea

external image 250px-Illustration_Spinacia_oleracea1.jpg
  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to central and southwestern Asia [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual plant (rarely biennial) [1]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : height of up to 30 cm. [1, 2]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination : seed germinates within about 2 weeks [2]
    • Pollination & Reproduction : pollinated by Wind,self-fertile, dry summers causing the plants to quickly run to seed [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : grows well with strawberries, cabbages, onions, peas and celery. summer crop can be interplanted between rows of slower growing plants, such as Brussels sprouts, and harvested before the other crop needs the extra space [2]
    • Incompatibilities : bad companion for grapes and hyssop [2]
    • Predatorsexternal image Spinazie_vrouwelijke_plant_%28Spinacia_oleracea_female_plant%29.jpg
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, summer crops do best in light shade [2]
    • Nutrients : grow best and produce their heaviest crop of leaves on a nitrogen-rich soil [2]
    • Humidity : require plenty of moisture in the growing season, dry summers causing the plants to quickly run to seed [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, dislike very heavy or very light soils [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, dislike acid soils, preferring a neutral to slightly alkaline soil [2]
  • Cultivation
  • external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRXbJBdMP2mqND3EODjSSQ4o1nwlcPa0JL2JXWb1lWmPFq-a1Q
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : sow in situ from March to June for a summer crop. Seed is sown in situ during August and September for a winter crop. [2]
    • Harvest method & period : first leaves can be harvested about 6 weeks later [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinach
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Spinacia+oleracea






Mountain Spinach, Atriplex hortensisexternal image 220px-Atriplex_hortensis_cleaned_Sturm.png

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual [1]
    • Shape : height from two to six feet [1], growing to 1.8 m (6ft) by 0.3 m (1ft in) [2]
    • Lifecycle : Germination is usually good and rapid [2]
    • Reproduction : The flowers are monoecious (both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind, self-sow quite freely [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities : poor companion plant for potatoes, inhibiting their growth [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior : fast-growing [2]external image AtriplexHortensis3.jpg
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, require a position in full sun [2]
    • Nutrients : rich soils give the quick growth that is necessary for the production of tender leaves [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, rich, moisture-retentive soils give the quick growth that is necessary for the production of tender leaves, drought resistant, tolerate an annual precipitation of 30 to 140cm [2]
    • Temperature : tolerate an average annual temperature in the range of 6 to 24°C, tolerate hot weather well, but soon go to seed [2]
    • Wind : can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. [2]
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil, doing equally well in a wide variety of well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbanceexternal image 3778404283_65b95bac98.jpg
    • pH : Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow/tolerant in very alkaline and saline soils, tolerate pH of 5.0 to 8.2 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow March to August in situ, only just covering the seed [2]
    • Harvest : Leaves can be harvested 40 - 60 days after sowing [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garden_Orache
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Atriplex+hortensis




New Zealand Spinach, Tetragonia tetragonioidesexternal image Tetragonia%20tetragonioides%201.gif

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Chile and Argentina [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : evergreen Perennial [2]
    • Shape : growing to 0.2 m (0ft 8in) by 1 m (3ft 3in) [2]
    • Lifecycle : The seedlings will emerge in 10–20 days, and it will continue to produce greens through the summer. [1]
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : strawberries [3], fruit trees, petunia, tagetes and yarrow [4]
    • Incompatibilities : avoid the shade of tall plants such as corn or pole beans [3]
    • Predatorsexternal image warrigalsingle.jpg
    • Behavior : growing at fast rate [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : grows best in a good rich soil [2]
    • Water : prefers a moist environment for growth [1], prefers dry or moist soil and once established can tolerate drought, thrives in dry soils, but produce a better quality crop if they are given some water in dry weather [2]
    • Temperature : very tolerant of hot conditions but cannot tolerate frost [2]
    • Wind : can tolerate maritime exposure [2]
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers light well-drained soil. [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : halophyte and grows well in saline ground [1], suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soils. [2]external image nzspinach.jpg
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : The thick, irregularly-shaped seeds should be planted just after the last spring frost. Before planting, the seeds should be soaked for 12 hours in cold water, or 3 hours in warm water. Seeds should be planted 5–10 mm deep, and spaced 15–30 cm apart [1], seed can be slow to germinate, soaking in warm water for 24 hours prior to sowing may help, sow early to mid spring and plant them out after the last expected frost, seed can also be sown in situ in late spring [2]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetragonia_tetragonioides
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Tetragonia+tetragonoides
    3. http://harvesttotable.com/2009/03/how_to_grow_new_zealand_spinac/
    4. http://www.gb0063551.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/seeog/companion/




Tomato

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://www.pfaf.org/user/plant.aspx?LatinName=Lycopersicon+esculentum




Turnip

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x





Aromatic Herbs



Basil, Ocimum basilicumexternal image basil.JPG

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : originally from India [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : most common varieties of basil are treated as annuals, some are perennial in warm, tropical climates [1], perrenial [3]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width: 30–130 cm tall [1], growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft). [3]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination : Germination is usually free and quick [3]
    • Reproduction : in flower from Aug to September, seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees. [3]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : beneficial to cabbage, squach, beans and tomatoes [2], good companion plant for tomatoes [3]
    • Incompatibilities : grows badly with rue and sage, can retard raspberry fruiting [3]
    • external image 250px-Basil-Basilico-Ocimum_basilicum-albahaca.jpgPredators
    • Behavior : essential oil showed antifungal and insect-repelling properties, very toxic to mosquitos [1], repels flies, can keep all manner of insect pests away from nearby plants [3]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : fares best in a sunny spot. [1], five hours per day of sunlight [2], cannot grow in the shade, requires a sunny position [3]
    • Nutrients : prefers a rich soil[1
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil. [3]
    • Temperature : frost tender [3]
    • Wind : prefers sheltered position [2], requires a sheltered position [3]
    • Drainage : fares best in a well-drained soil. |1] prefers well drained soil [2], suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers light well-drained soil to dry soil [3]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance :
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, tolerates a pH in the range 5 to 8 [3] external image basil_sprout_220161.jpg
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period: it may be sown in soil once chance of frost is past, can also be propagated very reliably from cuttings with the stems of short cuttings suspended for two weeks or so in water until roots develop. [1] can be sown in march-april [2], sow mid to late spring, prick out the seedlings into individual plants, plant out after the last expected frosts. [3]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil
    2. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilic_(plante)
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ocimum+basilicum



Dill, Anethum graveolensexternal image 250px-Illustration_Anethum_graveolens_clean.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Plant form, height, width & layer : up to 80cm high per 20cm wide [1]
    • Root form & depth : tap root [3], very long hollow [4], single stalk up to 3 feet [5]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period: annual, seed germinates in 2 weeks if the soil is warm, is in flower from Apr to July, and the seeds ripen from Jul to August [1]
    • Pollination and Reproduction: hermaphrodite flowers, self-pollination,often self-sows when growing in a suitable position [1]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses : edible leaves and seeds raw or cooked, and essential oil is extracted from the seed, used as a condiment and tea, it is also used medicinally [1]
    • Behavior : attracting wildlife, very attractive to bees [1]. Draws in many beneficial insects as the umbrella flower heads go to seed [2]
    • Companions : good companion for corn and cabbages, also in moderation for cucumbers, lettuce and onions [1]
    • Incompatibilities : inhibits the growth of carrots, reduces a carrot crop if it is grown to maturity near them, however, the young plant will help to deter carrot root fly [1]. Poor companion for tomatoes [2]
    • Predators :external image 800px-Anethum_graveolens_001.JPG
  • Inputs & Needs
    • Sun : full sun, cannot grow in the shade [1]. Even partial shade will reduce the yield substantially [2]
    • Nutrients : prefers a moderately rich soil [1]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil. [1]
    • Soil pH : acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils (5.3 to 7.8) [1]
    • Soil Drainage & Clay Tolerance : suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. [1]
    • Soil Depth & Root Disturbance : very intolerant of root disturbance and should not be transplanted because it will then quickly run to seed. [1]
    • Wind tolerance : requires shelter from the wind [1]
    • Temperature tolerance :
  • Cultivation
    • external image 495559758_27f09b5e3f_z.jpgSowing method, distance & period : sow April to early summer in situ and only just cover, autumn sowings can succeed if the winters are mild [1]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Anethum+graveolens
    2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dill
    3. http://gardening.about.com/od/herbsatoz/p/Dill-Growing-and-Using-Dill.htm
    4. http://www.veggieharvest.com/Growing-Herbs/Dill-Growing-and-Harvest-Information/
    5. http://www.kroegerherb.com/index.php/learn/glossary/D



Garlic, Allium sativumexternal image 220px-Allium_sativum_Woodwill_1793.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to central Asia [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape : bulb. It grows up to 0.5 m (2ft) in height [1] , growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : hermaphrodite flowers. Pollination occurs by insects and bees. [1, 2]
    • Root :
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : Grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile [2]
    • Incompatibilities : inhibits the growth of legumes, bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other [2]
    • Predators : major pathogens are nematodes and white rot disease [1]external image Allium_sativum.jpg
    • Behavior : repel rabbits and moles [1]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade [1], prefers a sunny position, Bulb formation occurs in response to increasing daylength and temperature [2]
    • Nutrients : Garlic plants prefer to grow in a soil with a high organic material content, but are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions [1]
    • Humidity : prefers dry or moist soil, bulb is liable to rot if grown in a wet soil [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil, light well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : are capable of growing in a wide range of soil conditions and pH levels [1], Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils, Dislikes very acid soils, Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3 [2]external image allium-sativum-garlic.jpg
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : In cold climates, cloves are planted in the fall, about six weeks before the soil freezes, and harvested in late spring, Garlic plants can be grown closely together, leaving enough space for the bulbs to mature, and are easily grown in containers of sufficient depth. [1], bulbs should be planted fairly deeply, Plant out the cloves in late autumn for an early summer crop[33, 200]. They can also be planted in late winter to early spring though yields may not be so good. Plant the cloves with their noses just below the soil surface [2]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garlic
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+sativum


Parsley, Petroselinum hortense

  • Summaryexternal image 250px-Petroselinum_crispum_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-103.jpg
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : bi-annual herbaceous [1]
    • Plant Form, Height, Width & Layer : 10–25 cm long leaves, flowering stem to 75 cm tall [1], 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.3 m (1ft) [2]
    • Root Form & Depth : taproot as a food store over the winter [1]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period : germination is slow [1], can take four to six weeks [1, 2], but usually in about 7 days at 25°c [2]
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects, self-sterile [2]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Behavior : attracts some wildlife [1, 2], good bee plant [2]
    • Companions.: good companion plant, especially for growing near roses, tomatoes, carrots, chives and asparagus, giving them all added vigour and protection against certain pests, especially carrot root fly and rose beetles[2].
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predatorsexternal image 220px-Petroselinum_crispum_003.JPG
  • Inputs & Needs
    • Sun : full sun, but can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) [2], tolerant of 4-6 hours of sun [3]
    • Nutrients:
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil [1, 2]
    • Soil pH : acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, growing poorly in acid soils [2]
    • Soil Drainage & Clay : prefer well drained [1, 2], suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soil [2], but growing poorly in too light soils
    • Soil Depth and Root Disturbance
    • Windexternal image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSnd94glOPMkvcjP2CdLO3xZRCWz21KTAmZe9SuO4s_1VtM8ldWFg
    • Temperature : best between 22–30 °C [1], winter-hardy [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, distance & period : for the leaf crop are typically spaced 10 cm apart, while for root crop are typically spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the root development.[1]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsley
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Petroselinum+crispum
    3. http://greenspot-english.blogspot.com/2011/08/permaculture-advises-shadow-tolerant.html




Welsh Onion, Allium fistulosum external image 220px-Allium_fistulosum_Ypey26.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : perrenial bulb [1]
    • Shape : growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees, insects [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : grows well with most plants, especially roses, carrots, beet and chamomile [2]
    • Incompatibilities : inhibits the growth of legumes, bad companion for alfalfa, each species negatively affecting the other [2]
    • Predators : often eaten by slugs [2]
    • Behavior : intolerant of competition, the plant is said to repel insects (e.g. moth) and moles [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerancesexternal image 220px-Batun.jpg
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, tolerates damp soils [2]
    • Temperature : tolerant of high temperatures [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers light well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, tolerate acid soils, prefers a pH in the range 6.5 to 7.5, tolerates a pH in the range 4.9 to 7.5 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • external image 3757273687_6bff3629e1.jpgPropagation : sow spring in a greenhouse. The seed germinates over a wide range of temperatures, it is faster at higher temperatures. Division of the plants is very easy and can be done at almost any time of the year though the spring is probably best. The divisions can be planted out straight into their permanent positions if required. [2]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_onion
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Allium+fistulosum






Wild Herbs



Chicory, Cichorium intybus external image 220px-Illustration_Cichorium_intybus0_clean.jpg

  • Summary : Perennial herb, resistant when eaten by animals, can grow in abandoned areas, dump sites, sites with rocks, flowers last for 1 day
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence: perennial leave vegetable and root
    • Plant Form, Height & Width: 3-24 dm tall, often rough-hairy, becoming woody and reddish, the branches rigid, stiffly spreading; leaves alternate, mainly clustered near the base, or forming a rosette near the ground [2]
    • Root Form & Depth: taproot fleshy, deep, branched, up to 75 cm long
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period
    • Pollination & Reproduction: reproducing by seeds and from roots
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses: leaves for salads or cooked, root for coffee substitute, medicinal, forage
    • Behavior: green manure can takes potassium from 1m deep [6]
    • Companions : Carrot, fennel [5], beside : Garlic, Cawliflower, Artichoke, Asparagus, and in row with : Cawliflower, Artichoke, Asparagus [6]external image CICINT_SKK.jpg
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : full sun
    • Fertility
    • Humidity : low/drought resistant [1] but watered in dry areas cultures [2], requires well-distributed rainfall, or some irrigation in drier area
    • Temperature: cool weather crop, it tolerates only moderate summer temperatures,
    • Wind
    • Soil Drainage & Clay: any type of soil, but, when cultivated grows best on mellow, deeply tilled, fertile soil or sandy loam
    • Soil pH 4,5-8,3
    • Soil Depth and Root Disturbance
  • Cultivation
    • external image 0920chicorytiny.jpgSowing method, spacing & period : when cultivated for roots: planted, or drilled, in a firm, fine-textured seed bed, at a depth of not more than 0.6 cm in rows spaced 45-60 cm apart, at a rate of 2.25 kg/ha
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
      1. http://www.gardenality.com/Plants/772/Wildflowers/Chicory.html
      2. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Cichorium_intybus.html
      3. http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/chicory.htm
      4. http://www.thriftyfun.com/tf92168591.tip.html
      5. http://www.thriftyfun.com/tf92168591.tip.html
      6. http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=13433217




Spiny Chicory, Cichorium spinosumexternal image cichspi11.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : Seashores in Greece (called stamnagathi/σταμναγκάθι in greek)[1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : biennal/perrenial [1]
    • Shape : growing to 0.2 m (0ft 7in) [1]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and pollinated by Bees [1]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predatorsexternal image Lassithi%20Karfi%20chicor%C3%A9e%20%C3%A9pineuse%20Cichorium%20spinosum%20Karfi.jpg
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position with light shade in the summer to prevent plants running to seed. [1]
    • Nutrients : succeeds in any moderately fertile, prefers a soil rich in humus [1]
    • Water : prefers moist soil [1]
    • Temperature
    • Wind : tolerate maritime exposure [1]
    • Drainage : Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers and succeed in well-drained soil, prefers a medium to light sandy or gravelly soil [1]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbanceexternal image 266%20-%20Cichorium%20spinosum%20L..jpg
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils [1]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : sow spring. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts [1]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cichorium+spinosum






Green Manures



Alfalfa, Medicago sativaexternal image 220px-75_Medicago_sativa_L.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Plant form, height, width & layer : height of up to 1 meter
    • Root form & depth : deep root 6m (sometimes stretching more than 15 meters) [1]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period : lives 4–8 years
    • Pollination
  • Outputs & Relation
    • Products
    • Behavior
      • nitrogen fixer
      • large number of insects it attract
    • Companions
      • recommended rotation with other species (for example, corn or wheat) before reseeding.external image 800px-Medicago-sativa-flowers.jpg
      • good companion plant for growing near fruit trees and grape vines so long as it is in a reasonably sunny position,
      • encourages the growth of dandelions
    • Incompatibilities
      • autotoxicity
      • but it does not grow well with onions or other members of the Allium genus[2].
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun: full sun, cannot grow in the shade
    • Nutrients: can grow in nutritionally poor soil, but thrives best on a rich, requires sustained levels of potassium and phosphorus
    • Humidity : droughts resistant
    • Soil pH : topsoil supplied with limeexternal image sprouts_VG.jpg
    • Soil drainage & clay tolerance : Suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers friable, well-drained loamy soil
    • Soil depth
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, distance & period : sown in spring or fall, 13-20kg/hectar [1]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfalfa
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Medicago+sativa



Beans, Phaseolus vulgarisexternal image Photfile%20Images%5CLinedrawing%20Phaseolus%20vulgaris.gif

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : herbaceous annual plant [1]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : bushes 20–60 centimeters (7.9–24 in) tall [1]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period : Germination should take place within 10 days. [2]
    • Pollination & Reproduction : lowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile. [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : grow well with strawberries, carrots, cauliflowers, cucumbers, cabbage, beet, leek and celeriac [2]external image leo-mic-Phaseolus-vulgaris-592.jpg
    • Incompatibilities : inhibited by alliums and fennel growing nearby [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior : nitrogen fixer [1]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade.Requires a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : Requires a rich soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil. Requires a plenty of moisture in the growing season, dislikes wet soils [2]
    • Temperature : Requires a warm position, not frost-tolerant, air temperatures below 10°c can cause damage to seedlings [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Requires a well-drained soil, dislikes heavy [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • external image 220px-Stamboon_kiemplant.jpgpH : suitable pH: neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Dislikes acid soils, but prefers a pH in the range 5.5 to 6.5 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and sow in mid spring in a greenhouse. The seed can also be sown in situ in late spring though it may not ripen its seed in a cool summer. [2]
    • Harvest method & period : it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phaseolus_vulgaris
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Phaseolus+vulgaris



Broad Beans, Vicia fabaexternal image 240px-Illustration_Vicia_faba1.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to north Africa and southwest Asia [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual [2]
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : rigid, erect plant 0.5-1.8 m tall, [1], growing to 1 m (3ft 3in) [2]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination : Germination should take place in about 7 - 10 days. [2]
    • Pollination & Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.The plant is self-fertile [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : Grows well with carrots, cauliflowers, beet, cucumber, cabbages, leeks, celeriac, corn and potatoes [2]
    • Incompatibilities : inhibited by onions, garlic and shallots [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior: fixes nitrogen [1, 2]
  • Inputs & Tolerancesexternal image haba.jpg
    • Sun: can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, succeeds in a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : prefer to grow in rich [1].
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil and can tolerate drought, dislikes dry conditions according to some reports, whilst another says that it is drought tolerant once established [2]
    • Temperature : ideal temperature range in the growing season is between 18 and 27°c, at higher temperatures the flowers are often aborted [2]
    • Wind : tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure. [2]
    • Drainage : can be grown in soils in clay soil. However, it does prefer to grow in loams [1], Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil. Prefers a fairly heavy loam but succeeds in most soils that are well-drained, grows well in heavy clay soils [2].
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • external image 628x471.jpgpH : can be grown in soils with high salinity [1], suitable for acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 to 7 [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Sowing method, spacing & period : Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in situ in succession from late winter until early summer. Another sowing can be made in middle to late autumn. [2]
    • Harvest method & period : leave the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Vicia+faba+major




Chickpea, Cicer arietinumexternal image regpoischiche.gif

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : Middle East [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : annual [2]
    • Shape : between 20–50 cm (8–20 inches) high [1]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions : recommended planting chick peas to repel the white butterfly from cabbage [3] and broccoli [4]
    • Incompatibilitiesexternal image 250px-Cicer_arietinum_HabitusFruits_BotGardBln0906a.jpg
    • Predators
    • Behavior : fix Nitrogen [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, requires a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : prefers a fertile soil [2]
    • Humidity : prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought once established, do not succeed in mild moist maritime climates because the seedpods are hairy and hold moisture that encourages fungal growth and rots before full maturation, require 4 - 6 months with moderately dry conditions if they are to crop well [2]
    • Temperature : requires a hot position, require 4 - 6 months with moderately warm conditions if they are to crop well [2]
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers light well-drained soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH[: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils, Tolerates a pH in the range 5.5 to 8.6 [2]
  • Cultivationexternal image profimedia-0103633636.jpg
    • Propagation : sow April/May in situ under cloches, can be sown in autumn outdoors [2]
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickpea
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Cicer+arietinum
    3. http://nolimitsnana.hubpages.com/hub/Experiment-With-Companion-Planting
    4. http://forums.permaculture.org.au/archive/index.php/t-3631.html?s=3bc249c84fcb99cb69dcd869fd6aa818




Comfrey, Symphytum officinale
Symphytum officinale
Symphytum officinale

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : perrenial [2]
    • Shape : growing to 1.2 m (4ft) by 0.6 m (2ft in) [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees [2]
    • Root : very deep rooted [1, 2], root system is difficult to eradicate, even small fragments of root left in the soil can produce new plants [2]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses : medicinal, fertilizer [1]
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior: dynamic accumulator [1], grows very quickly, tolerant of being cut, can be invasive [2]
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    Russian Comfrey, Symphytum x uplandicum
    Russian Comfrey, Symphytum x uplandicum
    • Sun : can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, prefers a moist soil and some shade, best grown in an open sunny site [2]
    • Nutrients : best grown in a deep rich soil [2]
    • Water: prefers moist soil [2]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. [2]
  • Cultivationexternal image comfreyseedlings.jpg?w=300
    • Propagation : sow spring or autumn [2], Bocking 14 (hybrid between S. officinale and S. asperum, Symphytum × uplandicum, known as Russian Comfrey) is sterile, and therefore will not set seed (one of its advantages over other cultivars as it will not spread out of control), thus is propagated from root cuttings [1]
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comfrey
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Symphytum+officinale



Lentil, Lens Culinaris external image Lens_culinaris_Sturm8.jpg




White Mustard, Sinapis alba (or Brassica alba)external image 220px-Sinapis_alba_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-265.jpg

  • Summary : Edible seeds, leaves and shoots, fodder and honey plant. Green manure, nitrate trap, clay breaker and nematode repellent.
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Plant form, height, width & layer : height 60 to 90cm [1]
    • Root form & depth : not very deep rooted (very shallow) [3]
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period : 2 to 4 months [1], germination takes place in less than a week [3]
    • Pollination :
  • Outputs & Relation
    • Products
      • Edible seeds, shoots and leaves [3]
      • Forage & Honey plant
    • Behavior : break clay soil [4], nitrate trap.
    • Companionsexternal image 438px-Gele_mosterd_bloemen_Sinapis_alba.jpg
      • stimulate growth of beans, grapes and fruit trees, and are considered an excellent rotation for wheat and cereal crops. [1]
      • mustard is ideal sown before planting seed potato beds.[1]
      • rotate Vicia, and Alfalfa, with Peas/Beans, Mustard and Fodder Raddish with Brassicas. [1]
      • repels nematodes [4]
      • trap crop for cabbage, cauliflower, radish, Brussels sprouts, turnips, collards, kohlrabi; it attracts numerous insect pests. Remove and destroy it before your main crops can be harmed [5]
    • Incompatibilities : don’t use mustard before sowing a brassica crop in crop rotation, as this increases the likelihood of diseases.[1]
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Needs
    • Sun : full sun, can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade [3]
    • Nutrients: requires high nutrient soils with a high level of nitrogen [3]
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, does not do so well in dry periods, requires plenty of moisture for optimum growth, not suited to very wet soils [3], does not tolerate waterlogged soils [1]
    • Soil pH : 4.5 to 8.2 [3]
    • Soil drainage & clay tolerance : light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil [3].
    • Soil depth
  • Cultivation external image White%20Mustard_Vga.JPG
    • Sowing method, distance & period : march to september [1,3]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://www.seedaholic.com/green-manure-mustard.html
    2. http://www.ehow.com/info_8622558_brassica-alba-plants.html
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sinapis+alba
    4. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moutarde_blanche
    5. http://www.gardentoad.com/companionplants.html






Aromatic Shrubs


Caper, Capparis spinosa


  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native Context rocky hills, mediterranean [2]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence evergreen and decidious species, small shrub
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : 1m height and 2m width [2]
    • Root Form & Depth
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period: productive for 30 years[1]
    • Pollination & Reproduction hermaphrodite [2]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses leafs and flowers buds as condiment in salads
    • Behavior fixes nitrogen, fire resistence [1]
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : Full sun, cannot grow in the shade [2]
    • Nutrients:
    • Humidity : well drained, drought resistant [2]
    • Soil pH : pH level of 6.3-8.3 [2]
    • Soil Drainage & Clay : all kind of soils
    • Soil Depth and Root Disturbance: grows best in deep non stratified medium soils [1]
    • Wind salty exposure resistance [1]
    • Temperature: is not frost hardy [2]
  • external image lemongrass_seedling.jpgCultivation
    • Sowing : propagation from seed in a greenhouse. yound plants spacing from 2.5m to 5m depending of the variety, grown on pits or hedgerows on rocky soils [1]
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/caper
    2. http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Capparis+spinosa

Lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus

external image Cymbopogon_citratus_ill1gif.gif
  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Plant Form, Height & Width : average of 2-3 feet, although it can grow up to 9 ft.
    • Root Form & Depth
    • Lifespan, Maturation & Germination period
    • Pollination & Reproduction
  • Outputs & Relations
  • external image 450px-YosriNov04Pokok_Serai.JPG
    • Products and Uses
    • Behavior
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : Full sun and warmth [3]
    • Nutrients: light fertility [2], fertile [3]
    • Humidity : humid soil, abundant irrigation [2]
    • Soil pH : pH level of 6-7.8 [3]
    • Soil Drainage & Clay : sandy soil [2], loamy [3]
    • Soil Depth and Root Disturbance
    • Wind
    • Temperature: is not frost hardy [1]
  • external image lemongrass_seedling.jpgCultivation
    • Sowing : spacing 24-36 in. (60-90 cm)
    • Harvest method & period
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cymbopogon_citratus
    2. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citronnelle
    3. http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/organic-herbs/growing-lemongrass



Rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalisexternal image 250px-Rosmarinus_officinalis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-258.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : native to the Mediterranean [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : woody, perennial herb [1], evergreen Shrub [2],
    • Shape : growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 1.5 m (5ft)n [2]
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. [2]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : good companion for most plants, including cabbages, beans, carrots and sage [2]external image rosmarinus_officinalis_rosemary_flowers_19-04-04.jpg
    • Incompatibilities : grows badly with potatoes [2]
    • Predators
    • Behavior : pest-resistant [1], attracting wildlife, good bee plant [2],
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : grows in an open sunny position [1], cannot grow in the shade, prefers a sunny position [2]
    • Nutrients : grows best in conditions with average fertility [1]
    • Humidity : drought tolerant, will not withstand waterlogging [1, 2], prefers dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought [2]
    • Temperature : Prefers a hot position [2]
    • Wind : tolerate maritime exposure. [2]
    • Drainage : grows on friable loam soil with good drainage [1], suitable for light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. dislikes very heavy soils, likes a stony calcareous soil. [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance :
    • external image 100_8735.JPGpH : grows best in neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7–7.8) [1], suitable pH acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soils, prefers a a slightly alkaline soil [2]




Rose, Rosa spp.external image 250px-Illustration_Rosa_canina1.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : perrenial shrubs or vines [1], deciduous [2, 3, 4]
    • Shape
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Bees [2, 3, 4]
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions : grows well with alliums, parsley, mignonette and lupins, garlic planted nearby can help protect the plant from disease and insect predation [2, 3, 4]
    • Incompatibilities : grows badly with boxwood [2, 3, 4]
    • Predators
    • Behaviorexternal image Rush.JPG
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade, prefer a sunny position [2, 3, 4]
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity : prefers moist soil, dislikes water-logged soils [2, 3, 4]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil, grows well in heavy clay soils. [2, 3, 4]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH : suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils [2, 3, 4]
  • Cultivation
    • external image Roses+-+seedlings1.jpgPropagation : Rose seed often takes two years to germinate. This is because it may need a warm spell of weather after a cold spell in order to mature the embryo and reduce the seedcoat. One possible way to reduce this time is to scarify the seed and then place it for 2 - 3 weeks in damp peat at a temperature of 27 - 32°c (by which time the seed should have imbibed). It is then kept at 3°c for the next 4 months by which time it should be starting to germinate. Alternatively, it is possible that seed harvested 'green' (when it is fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and sown immediately will germinate in the late winter [2, 3, 4]
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose
    2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rosa+gallica
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rosa+gigantea
    4. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Rosa+villosa







Fruit Trees



Almond, Prunus dulcisexternal image 220px-Prunus_dulcis_-_K%C3%B6hler%E2%80%93s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-250.jpg

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context : Mediterranean [1]
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence : deciduous tree [1, 3]
    • Shape : 4–10 metres (13–33 ft) in height [1], growing to 6 m (19ft) by 6 m (19ft) [3]
    • Lifecycle : in flower from Mar to April, and the seeds ripen in October [3]
    • Reproduction : flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by Insects.The plant is self-fertile, partially self-sterile [3]
    • Root : shallow-rooted and will produce suckers if the roots are damaged [3]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • external image almond%252520tree%252520in%252520bloom%252520at%252520tantur.jpgPredators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun : cannot grow in the shade, succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in a sunny position [3]
    • Nutrients : can grow on soils low in organic matter [2]
    • Humidity : can grow on dry soils [2], prefers moist soil [3]
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage : can grow on soils dolomite gravel permeable soils [2], suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil, Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil [3]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance : requires a deep soil [2]
    • pH : accommodates slightly salty soils and thrives on calcareous soils [2], suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils, prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too much lime is present [3]external image attachment.php?attachmentid=1751&stc=1&thumb=1&d=1239002036
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation : requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification, the seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to germinate [3]
    • Harvest : Harvesting fresh almonds (green) is done in May and June, and dry almonds in September, October when the hull is open and dry [2]
  • References
    1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almond
    2. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amandier
    3. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Prunus+dulcis





Fig

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x




Mulberry

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x




Olive

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x




Plum

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x




Pomegranate

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Humidity
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Harvest
  • References
    1. x

Walnut, Juglans regia

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence: quick developement to 20-25m hight and 20m large[2], deciduous tree [1]
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction self fertile cultivars but it's best to grow 2 different cultivars
    • Root tap root, doesn't tolerate disturbance
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Products and Uses: edible seeds, oil, herbicide [2]
    • Companions: Eleagnus and alnus increase production because of the nitrogen fixing capacity[1]
    • Incompatibilities: leaves and root allelopathy for many plants, [2] used as herbicide. Resistant species: maple, alliums, crataegus, quince, gleditsia, helianthus, hibiscus
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun: full sun [1]
    • Nutrients: rich [1]
    • Humidity: should not dry in june [1]
    • Temperature: thermophile, not frost tolerant [1]
    • Wind no tolerant [2]
    • Drainage: well drained [2]
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance: deep [1]
    • pH prefers alcaline [2]
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation from ripe seed [2]
    • Harvest produces at 5-6 years tree
  • References
  1. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noyer_commun
  2. http://pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Juglans+regia




Support trees


  • Carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua
  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence Evergreen 7m to 13m tree [1, 2]
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction male and female tree are required if grown for seed
    • Root deep root [1]
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses large dense screening hedge [1]
    • Companions olive, vines, fruit trees [3]
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior nitrogen fixing
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun full sun
    • Nutrients poor, moderately fertile [2]
    • Water intolerant in waterlogging, salt tolerant, drought tolerant when not cultivated for pods [1]
    • Temperature not frost tolerant
    • Wind tolerates hot and humid costal areas [1]
    • Drainage well drained
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance rocky gravely soil
    • pH calcareous
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation 2 month seed germination [2]
    • Care
    • Harvest seed production after 6-7 years

  • References
  1. ###
      1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/caroubier
      2. http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Ceratonia+siliqua
      3. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/37404434







To Add


To Add:
  • Tomato
  • Turnip
  • Sweet Potato
  • Cumin
  • Sesame
  • Wheat
  • Barley
  • Hazelnut
  • Pea
  • Mango
  • Pineapple
  • Nasturium
  • Marigold
  • Calendula
  • Hyssop
  • Tagetes
  • Lupinus angustifolius
  • Pumpkin
  • Agave
  • Lovage
  • Borage
  • Strawberry
  • Pisum vulgare
  • Mint
  • Ginger




All plants are described above according to this generic pattern :

Prototype

  • Summary
  • Specifics
    • Native & Natural Context
    • Group, Layer, Annuality & Persistence
    • Shape
    • Lifecycle
    • Reproduction
    • Root
  • Outputs & Relations
    • Uses
    • Companions
    • Incompatibilities
    • Predators
    • Behavior
  • Inputs & Tolerances
    • Sun
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Temperature
    • Wind
    • Drainage
    • Soil Depth & Disturbance
    • pH
  • Cultivation
    • Propagation
    • Care
    • Harvest
  • References